ASA24-2016 allows Researchers to collect both 24-hour dietary recalls and food records. Previous versions can be used for 24-hour recalls only. This page describes the methodologies for both recalls and records.
24-hour Dietary Recalls
Respondents are guided through the 24-hour recall interview using a modified version of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM).
- Meal-based Quick List
- Meal Gap Review
- Detail Pass
- Final Review
- Forgotten Foods
- Last Chance
- Usual Intake Question
- Supplement Module, if selected by the Researcher (Note: For ASA24-2016, supplements are reported similar to how foods are reported (i.e., throughout the day as part of a meal). If the Researcher does not turn on the module, Respondents can still report supplements, but they will not be prompted to do so. For all earlier versions of ASA24 supplements are queried after recalls are completed for foods and beverages.)
Food records are only available in ASA24-2016. A record can consist of one or more days as determined by the Researcher during study setup. When they log in to the ASA24-2016 Respondent Website, Respondents will be instructed to complete a food record in real time. The methodology for food records was adapted from the ASA24-2016 methodology for 24-hour recalls, described above. The steps for any given day of a food record include:
Respondents are asked if they are finished reporting for the entire day after each meal reported. If not, they go back to step 1 to report another meal. If they are finished reporting for the day, they proceed to step 4.
- Final Review
- Forgotten Foods
- Last Chance
- Usual Intake Question
- Supplement Module, if selected by the Researcher (Note: For ASA24-2016, supplements are reported similar to how foods are reported (i.e., throughout the day as part of a meal. If the Researcher does not turn on the module, Respondents can still report supplements, but they will not be prompted to do so.)
Meal-based Quick List
During the first pass of a 24-hour recall, Respondents are asked to provide a list of the foods and drinks consumed at each meal occasion during the previous 24-hour recall period from midnight-to-midnight or, optionally, in the 2016 and 2014 versions of ASA24, for the past 24-hours (starting at the time of the first login).
Similarly, for food records in ASA24-2016, Respondents first provide a list of foods and drinks for the meal they are reporting. They immediately proceed to the Detail and Meal Gap Passes after each meal reported.
For ASA24-2016, Respondents are required to search to find foods, drinks or supplements; search results can then be filtered by food groups, if desired. For recalls in all earlier versions, Respondents are able to browse food group categories or search to find their foods, drinks, and supplements.
For records and recalls, foods, drinks and supplements reported at each meal are recorded in the My Foods and Drinks panel within the instrument. In addition to selecting an eating occasion (e.g., breakfast, lunch, snack), Respondents are also prompted to specify the time of the occasion before reporting the foods and drinks consumed. The Researcher can opt to collect additional contextual information including where meals were eaten, television and computer use during meals, and whether the meal was eaten alone or with others by turning on the corresponding module during study setup.
Meal Gap Review
Once Respondents finish creating their My Foods and Drinks list at the end of the Quick List step, they are asked if they consumed anything during any 3-hour gaps between eating occasions. For the midnight-to-midnight version of the 24-hour recalls and for food records, Respondents are also asked if they consumed anything between midnight and the first eating occasion, and between the last eating occasion and midnight regardless of the length of time gaps. During a Gap Review, Respondents have the opportunity to return to the Quick List pass to add a meal(s) and the foods, drinks, and supplements consumed at them.
Respondents are asked for details about the foods and drinks they recorded during the Quick List, including form (e.g., raw), preparation methods (e.g., grilled or roasted), the amount consumed, and any additions (e.g., sugar, coffee cream, salad dressing). In both the 2014 and 2016 versions of ASA24, an option is available to probe Respondents about the source (e.g. grocery store, farmer's market, etc.) of all or most of the ingredients in the reported foods and drinks.
Respondents are prompted to review all of the foods, drinks, and, supplements reported for the intake day. If desired, Respondents can return to the Quick List to edit existing items or to add meals, foods, drinks and supplements.
Following the Final Review, Respondents are asked questions probing the consumption of commonly forgotten foods and drinks (e.g., snack foods, fruits, vegetables, cheese, water, coffee, tea, and, for ASA24-2016, supplements). Respondents must select either "Yes" or "No" for each food and drink. For any "Yes" response, the Respondent is returned to the Quick List to add the forgotten item(s).
After Forgotten Foods, Respondents are asked if they have reported all foods, drinks and, for ASA24-2016, supplements. If not, Respondents will be returned to the Quick List to add more items; otherwise, they will move to the Usual Intake Question.
Usual Intake Question
For recalls, the final question asks: Was the amount of food and drink that you had yesterday more than usual, usual, or less than usual? For records, the final question asks: Was the amount of food and drink that you had on [record day] more than usual, usual, or less than usual? This question probes whether this was a typical day's intake.
Supplements include vitamins, minerals, and other supplements including prescription supplements. The supplements included are based on those reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
In ASA24-2016, Respondents are able to report supplements similar to how they report foods and drinks throughout the day as part of a meal, regardless of whether the module is turned on or off. However, if turned on, Respondents are cued several times to report any supplements consumed.
In the 2011, 2012, and 2014 versions of ASA24, a Researcher must turn on this module during study setup in order for Respondents to be able to report supplement intake. Respondents are asked to provide information about the types and doses of supplements consumed by completing a supplement-specific Quick List, Detail Pass, and Final Review. Respondents are able to browse supplement categories (e.g., Multi-Vitamin/Mineral, Calcium products, Herbal/Botanicals) or search for a particular supplement.
ASA24 is a registered trademark of HHS.