Respondents are guided through the 24-hour recall interview using a modified version of the USDA’s Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM). The steps in the interview process include:
- Meal-based Quick List
- Meal Gap Review
- Detail Pass
- Forgotten Foods
- Final Review
- Last Chance
- Usual Intake Question
- Supplement Module (if selected by the researcher)
Meal-based Quick List
During the first pass of the interview, respondents are asked to provide a list of the foods and drinks consumed at each meal occasion during the previous 24-hour recall period from midnight to midnight or, optionally, in the 2014 versions, for the past 24-hours (starting at the time of the first login). Respondents are able to browse food group categories to find their foods and drinks or search for a particular item. Foods and drinks reported at each meal are recorded in the My Foods and Drinks panel within the instrument. This initial step is called the meal-based Quick List. In addition to selecting an eating occasion (e.g., breakfast, lunch, snack), respondents are also prompted to specify the time of the occasion before reporting the foods and drinks consumed. The researcher can opt to collect additional contextual information including where meals were eaten, television and computer use during meals, and whether the meal was eaten alone or with others.
Meal Gap Review
Once respondents finish creating their My Foods and Drinks list at the end of the Quick List step, they are asked if they consumed anything during any 3-hour gaps between eating occasions. For the midnight to midnight version, respondents are also asked if they consumed anything between midnight and the first eating occasion, and between the last eating occasion and midnight. A response of "Yes" to any gap will return the respondent to the Quick List to add the appropriate food(s) or drink(s).
Respondents are asked for details about the foods and drinks they recorded during the Quick List, including form (e.g., raw), preparation methods (e.g., grilled or roasted), the amount eaten, and any additions (e.g., sugar, coffee cream, salad dressing). In the 2014 versions, an option is available to query Respondents about the source (grocery store, farmer's market, etc.) of where reported foods and drinks were obtained.
Following the Detail Pass, a pop-up window appears with questions probing about the consumption of commonly forgotten foods and drinks (e.g., snack foods, fruits, vegetables, cheese, water, coffee, tea). Respondents must check either "Yes" or "No" for each food or drink probed. For any "Yes" response, the respondent will be returned to the Quick List to add the forgotten item(s).
Respondents are prompted to review all of the foods and drinks reported for the intake day, and they can make edits and add meals and foods and drinks.
After the Final Review, a pop-up screen appears with an option to add food or drink items if respondents have still forgotten any. Again, respondents will be brought back to the Quick List to add more items; otherwise, they will move forward to the final question in the food and drink module.
Usual Intake Question
The final question asks: Was the amount of food that you ate yesterday more than usual, usual, or less than usual? This question probes whether this was a typical day's intake.
Supplement Module (if selected by the researcher)
Respondents are asked to provide information about the types and doses of supplements consumed by completing a Quick List, a Detail Pass, and a Final Review. Supplements include vitamins, minerals, and other supplements including prescription supplements. Respondents are able to browse supplement categories (e.g., Multi-Vitamin/Mineral, Calcium products, Herbal/Botanicals) or search for a particular supplement. The supplements included are based on those reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
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