Differences Between DHQ II and DHQ III

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This page describes changes to the food questions that were added or modified, and dietary supplement changes, from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II) to the third version of this food frequency questionnaire, DHQ III.

Summary of Differences

In general, compared to DHQ II, DHQ III includes more food and beverage items.

For example, DHQ III has questions for brewed, instant, espresso, or dark roasted coffee vs. a single item for coffee in DHQ II.

DHQ III also has more options for types of foods/beverages (for example, almond milk, coconut milk, and condensed/evaporated milk options for milk added to cold cereals; chicken or turkey types for hot dogs/frankfurters).

Unlike DHQ II, DHQ III includes questions on cooking methods (for example, grilled, pan-fried), doneness (rare, medium, etc.) and charring for some meat, poultry and fish items.

Finally, DHQ III includes more dietary supplement questions.  A detailed list of differences between DHQ II and DHQ III is available.

Complete List of Differences

Beverages

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Almond milk, coconut milk, and evaporated or condensed (canned) milk options
    • Espresso drink mixtures
    • Fruit or vegetable smoothies
    • Grape juice
    • Green tea
    • Herbal or fruit tea
    • Light beer option
    • Milkshakes
    • Vitamin water
    • Stevia in additions to coffee and tea
    • Type of coffee (brewed, instant, espresso, or dark roasted)
    • Type of cream or half-and-half in additions to coffee and tea
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Calcium-fortification for other 100% fruit juice
    • Carrot juice
    • Energy drinks by season

Fruits

Added to DHQ III

  • Avocado or guacamole
  • Blueberries

Vegetables, potatoes, beans

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Garlic
    • Mashed potatoes
    • Mayonnaise on salads
    • Raw carrots
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Asparagus
    • Cheese or cheese sauce added to potatoes
    • Lard, fatback, bacon fat, corn oil, canola or rapeseed oil, oil spray options from additions to vegetables
    • Lard, fatback, bacon fat, cheese sauce, and white sauce options in additions to vegetables
    • Winter squash

Soups, chili, tacos, burritos, tortillas, etc.

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Corn on wheat tortillas
    • Tacos and burritos
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Cream soups

Rice, pasta, pizza

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Sushi
    • Whole grain for Rice or other cooked grains
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Butter, margarine, or oil added to the Rice or other cooked grains

Cereal, pancakes, breads

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Almond milk, coconut milk, and condensed or evaporated milk options to cold cereals
    • Diet or light syrup addition questions in pancakes, waffles, or French toast
    • Hummus
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Butter or margarine added in the Oatmeal, grits, or other cooked cereals
    • Stuffing, dressing, or dumplings
  • Additional modifications
    • Combined Peanut butter and Jelly questions
    • Reorganized questions on cereal types in cold cereal: whole grain, highly fortified, granola cereals, and other types

Cold cuts, luncheon meats, hot dogs

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Bologna
    • Buns and rolls frequency questions for hotdogs or frankfurters
    • Chicken or turkey options for hot dogs or frankfurters
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Light, low-fat, or fat-free luncheon or deli-style ham in Luncheon or deli-style ham
    • Light, low-fat, or fat-free cold cuts or luncheon meats in Other cold cuts or luncheon meats
    • Light or low-fat in Hot dogs or frankfurters

Meat, poultry, fish

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Anchovy, mackerel, herring, or sardine in Fresh tuna, trout, anchovy, mackerel, herring, or sardine
    • Chicken or turkey options in sausages
    • Frequency questions on pan-fried, grilled, and oven-broiled chicken, and level of charring (with images) for baked, broiled, roasted, stewed, grilled, pan-fried, or fried chicken
    • Frequency questions on pan-fried and grilled burgers, and level of charring (with images) in Beef hamburgers or cheeseburgers not from fast food restaurants
    • Frequency questions on pan-fried, grilled, and oil-broiled steaks, and level of charring (with images) in Steak
    • Frequency question on pork chops, and cooking methods (pan-fried and grilled), and level of charring (with images) in Pork
    • Frequency questions on pan-fried, microwaved, and oven-broiled bacon, and level of charring (with images) in Bacon
    • Links, pan-fried, and level of charring (with image) for sausages
    • Salmon
    • Tuna salad in canned tuna
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Cheeseburger from a fast food restaurant
    • How often oil, butter, margarine, or other fat was used to fry, sauté, baste, or marinate any meat, poultry, or fish
    • Lean steak
    • Light, low-fat, or lean bacon
    • Light, low-fat, or lean sausage
    • Question on the fats regularly used for food preparation in meat, poultry, fish
    • Water-packed canned tuna, or prepared with mayonnaise or other dressing

Eggs, meat alternatives

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Eggs cooked with cheese or meat
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Eggs cooked in oil, butter, or margarine, and egg salad

Chips, pretzels, other snacks

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Almonds only and peanuts only in whole nuts
    • Granola bars
    • Protein powder
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Fat-free potato chips and corn chips or tortilla chips

Yogurt and cheese

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Whipped cream
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Low-fat or fat-free yogurt, added a question on Greek yogurt

Sweets, baked goods, desserts

  • Added to DHQ III
    • Brownies
    • Cookies (separated with brownies)
    • Pudding or custard
  • On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III
    • Cream, pudding, custard, or meringue pie, and pecan pie
    • Fruit crisp, cobbler, or strudel, and on sugar or honey added to foods

Spreads and dressings

On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III

  • Butter
  • Sour cream
  • Cream cheese

Summary questions

On DHQ II and deleted on DHQ III

  • Summary questions on servings of vegetables and fruits

Vitamins and supplements

Added to DHQ III

  • B-complex
  • B-12
  • B-6
  • Biotin
  • Coenzyme Q
  • Eye health supplement
  • Fiber supplement
  • Folate or folic acid
  • Garlic supplement
  • Joint supplement
  • Magnesium
  • Melatonin
  • Niacin
  • Omega-3 or fish oil
  • Potassium
  • Probiotics
  • Saw palmetto
  • Type of multivitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • Zinc