Adolescent Populations Studies - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review
Table 6.2 presents summary data from epidemiologic surveys with at least 100 subjects collecting food and supplement intake data from adolescent populations. The two most recent US nutrition monitoring surveys, the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intake of Individuals (CSFII), each included 24HR (24-Hour Recall) interviews to assess food and beverage intake. In both surveys, adolescents were interviewed independently without a parent or guardian. The diet-related questions in NHANES, CSFII, and the integrated What We Eat in America-NHANES survey, which is currently in the field, are presented in Table 2.5 (in the Pregnancy and Lactation section). The rationale for selecting instruments for the integrated survey as well as the history of past CSFII and NHANES surveys were recently reviewed (9). The integrated What We Eat in America-NHANES includes two 24HR interviews, one in-person and one by telephone, and a propensity questionnaire (100-item NCI DHQ, or Diet History Questionnaire, without portion size information) in all children older than age 2 years. For the 24-hr recalls, the probes and portion size estimates aides are the same for both adolescents and adults. Likewise, the propensity questionnaire does not contain any adaptations for adolescent populations. Supplement use is queried in a separate questionnaire on frequency, dosage, and duration of use of specific products.
Food records were used in seven of the surveys in Table 6.2. With adolescents, food records present a challenge in terms of motivation and compliance. A longitudinal study of female adolescents experienced a 28 percent loss in subjects over a 6-year period (261).
In the US, the Youth Adolescent Questionnaire (YAQ) has been used in several studies, including studies of diverse populations. The Bogalusa Heart Study FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire) has received more limited use. Various forms of 24HR interviews were adopted by the other surveys listed.
Most of the surveys listed in Table 6.2 did not report methodology for assessing the intake of vitamin and mineral supplements.