ASA24® Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
On this page...
- General ASA24 Information
- Researcher Access
- Study Design & Respondent Access
- Output & Data Management
- Transitioning Older Studies to ASA24-2022
- Citing the ASA24 System in Publications & Presentations
General ASA24 Information
What questions and probes are used during the ASA24 recall or record interview?
The passes, questions and probes used are drawn from the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM), which has been modified to enable automated, self-administered recalls. This modification process has been documented in a published manuscript. Details on the passes of the recall interview are also available.
What information is available on the validity of the ASA24 system?
The ASA24 Respondent Websites are based on USDA's interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recall system. An abstract of the most recent evaluation of that tool can be viewed in PubMed. The ASA24 Evaluation & Validation web page also contains additional information about the evaluation of the ASA24 system.
How are the ASA24 system database files updated?
The US versions of the ASA24 system are linked to the updates of the underlying databases, including AMPM, the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS), the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Dietary Supplement Database, and the MyPyramid Equivalents or Food Patterns Equivalents Databases (MPED/FPED). These updates are made approximately every two years.
The Canadian version of the ASA24 system will be updated when a new version of the Canadian Nutrient File (CNF) is available and will take into consideration updates to the U.S. databases if applicable.
What documentation is available for Researchers interested in using the ASA24 system?
NCI has created extensive documentation which is available on this ASA24 website and Principal Investigators and study staff are encouraged to spend time reviewing this website before starting to use ASA24 for research, clinical, or educational purposes.
There are a number of downloadable resources documenting various key aspects of the ASA24 system, including:
- Information for Researchers proposing to use the ASA24 system in their studies who are required to describe the tool in funding and/or ethics applications.
- Researcher Instructions, which provide step-by-step instructions for setting up a study.
- Participant Help Guides, which describe the steps for completing 24-hour recalls or food records.
- Sample Analysis Files and Data Dictionaries, which describe each output file from the ASA24 system.
How much does it cost to use the ASA24 system?
Please see our webpage with information about costs associated with using the ASA24 system.
Who will need access to the ASA24 Researcher Website to manage a study?
Study staff managing study logistics, overseeing Respondent progress, and requesting reports and analysis files will need a username and password to access the Researcher Website. The Researcher who created the study can add or remove study staff at any time by logging into the Researcher Website, selecting a study and editing the study details. Usernames and passwords will automatically be emailed to staff who are added to a study.
How can a researcher gain access to the ASA24 system?
A researcher, clinician or teacher who wishes to use the ASA24 system must 1) visit the Researcher Website to create an account online and then 2) set up a new study or new studies.
To create an account, the following basic information must be provided: name, organization, phone number, and email address. Individuals creating an account must also read and accept the ASA24 Researcher Agreement.
An email with a temporary password will be sent to the Researcher. After logging in to the Researcher Website for the first time, a new password must be created before a new study can be registered.
How can a researcher test or pilot the ASA24 system?
There are three ways to test the ASA24 system:
- Interested users can complete an ASA24-2018 recall using the Respondent demonstration (demo) version without a username or password. The U.S. recall can be completed in English or Spanish. Note that the demo version does not provide analysis file output.
- Access to the full ASA24 system requires a Researcher to create a user account, register a study, and create at least one Respondent account (i.e., username and password). When at least one study demo account is created, Researchers can use the demo account to familiarize themselves with the Respondent experience and to verify study settings made via the Respondent Website during study setup. Data entered using the demo account will not be saved and will not appear in output analysis files.
- To extensively test the ASA24 system, including viewing output analysis files, Researchers can set up test user accounts by specifying Study IDs for testing purposes. It is important to ensure that these test Study IDs can be distinguished from valid Respondent IDs in the output files so that they can be deleted prior to study analyses.
Which versions of the ASA24 system can be used for new studies?
Visit the NCI webpage which provides an overview of all the ASA24 Respondent websites, to learn more about which versions of the ASA24 system can be used for a new study.
How will the ASA24 system help monitor my study’s progress?
Researchers can visit the Researcher Website to view and download data on Respondents’ activity. This includes the number of completed intakes per Respondent and for scheduled recall study types, the date of the next scheduled recall. Tracking data can be filtered by intake status and a specific date range.
Can I use the ASA24 system with students in a class that I am teaching?
Yes, the ASA24 system can be used as an instructional tool. Teachers or professors should register to use the ASA24 system using the same process that would be used for a study (see FAQ 2). Refer to the Researcher Instructions [PDF - 1.95 MB] for details.
Can I use the ASA24 system with patients in a clinical setting?
Yes, the ASA24 system can be used to help a clinician analyze energy, nutrient, and food group intakes in patients. Clinicians should register to use the ASA24 system using the same process that would be used for a study (see FAQ 2). Refer to the Researcher Instructions for details.
It may be helpful for both clinicians and patients to receive a Respondent Nutrition Report after completing their recall or food record. This is an option that can be turned on when you set up your account. Note that for food records, only the clinician can view the Respondent Nutrition Report (in the Researcher website). The clinician can then share this report with the patient as desired. If this option is turned on and patients complete a 24-hour recall, the patient receives the report immediately after completing their recall. It is also available in the Researcher website for the clinician.
Another benefit of using the ASA24 system with patients is automatic nutrient analysis and food group information that can be accessed by the clinician via the Researcher Website after a recall or food record has been completed.
Can the ASA24 system be translated to other languages and/or modified for other settings?
Yes, the ASA24 Respondent Website can be translated to other languages besides English and Spanish. However, the ASA24 system was developed for use in the U.S., and the foods included reflect those consumed by the U.S. population. Modification of the ASA24 system for use in other settings where food consumption patterns differ is feasible but requires substantial effort and funding. Please contact Kirsten Herrick for further information.
Can the ASA24 system be downloaded onto a laptop or other electronic device?
No, the ASA24 system is a web-based program and is not downloadable to be completed offline. A Respondent must be connected to the internet to complete a record or recall.
Study Design & Respondent Access
How many respondents can use the ASA24 system at the same time?
Currently, the system can support up to 300 concurrent respondents meaning 300 respondents across all ASA24 studies can report their intake at any given moment without affecting system performance. On average, there are 30 respondents using the system at any given moment across all ASA24 studies. If a researcher anticipates having hundreds of respondents accessing ASA24 at the exact same time, it is recommended that the timing of the intakes be managed to avoid having a high number of concurrent users. Please contact the ASA24 Help Desk if you have a need for a high volume of concurrent users to discuss management strategies.
How many recalls or records can be completed by each respondent?
Each respondent is assigned a username as part of the study configuration process. The maximum number of recalls or records is set by the researcher during study configuration. Both fully completed recalls or records and recalls or records that are started but not completed count toward the maximum. This parameter can be changed after a study has begun.
How is respondent confidentiality maintained within the ASA24 system?
Please see our webpage with more information about respondent confidentiality.
Can the ASA24 system be used as an interviewer-administered tool?
The ASA24 system was not designed for this purpose, but many researchers are using it as a tool to guide interviewers through the administration of recalls. For example, interviewer administration of recalls might be helpful for respondents with low literacy skills. It is advisable to have the ASA24 interface accessible to respondents to make use of visual cues such as the portion size images.
Can the ASA24 system be adapted to a paper-based tool or used to enter recall or record data collected using a paper-based tool?
The ASA24 system was designed to collect recall and record data directly from respondents based on USDA's Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM). The recall or record is respondent-driven in that the detailed questions asked are based on a series of linked question pathways, with questions being dependent on a previous answer (i.e., the probes used to collect details such as portion size depend on the food or drink reported [e.g., orange] and the form in which it was consumed [e.g., whole fruit, slices]).
The ASA24 system contains more than 2,824 unique detailed probe questions, almost 17,000 portion-size images, and more than 13 million food pathways. Obtaining the level of detail that the ASA24 system captures using a paper-based tool would be very challenging.
It is possible to enter information collected on a paper-based tool into the ASA24 system to calculate nutrient or food group intakes. However, details regarding intake may be lost by not having respondents answer all the detailed questions in the system. There is an additional burden of identifying a tool to collect written data, administering it, and then entering data from it, be it a recall or record, into the ASA24 system. If paper-based tools are being considered because there are concerns for accessibility to reliable internet or low-literacy, a researcher could consider interviewer-administration of ASA24 in an environment where the respondents have access to a screen and prompts.
Can the ASA24 system be used to enter food record data?
Yes. Since the 2016 versions of ASA24, the system can be used to collect food records. All previous versions collected 24-hour recalls only.
How will study respondents be directed to the ASA24 system?
It is the responsibility of researchers to contact study respondents to provide the URL for the Respondent Website, usernames, and passwords to access the site, and dates to complete their recalls or records. NCI has no access to any contact or personally identifiable information for study respondents.
Can study respondents be redirected to the ASA24 Respondent Website from an existing study Website?
Yes, respondents can be redirected from a study Website to the ASA24 Respondent Website so that they can complete their recalls or records without having to log in directly to the ASA24 system. To find out more about the single sign-on option, please view our webpage with information about costs associated with using ASA24. There is a nominal charge per study to set this up.
When will study participants be able to access the ASA24 system to complete their recalls or records?
It is up to the researcher to determine the schedule for the completion of recalls or records by study respondents. The ASA24 system will permit both scheduled and unscheduled administrations of 24-hour recalls and both consecutive and non-consecutive days of food record collections.
What should a respondent do if they forget their username or password?
If a respondent forgets their username or password, they should contact the research team for the study they are involved with. researchers can manage their respondent accounts on the Researcher Website. NCI and the ASA24 Help desk cannot interact with or support study respondents. NCI and the ASA24 Help Desk does not have access to any contact information or personally identifiable information for respondents.
How long does it take for a respondent to complete ASA24 food recalls and food records?
Data from usage of the 2016 version in the United States indicates that the median time for respondents to complete a 24-hour recall is 24 minutes. The majority of respondents complete their 24-hour recall in 17 to 34 minutes. Our data indicate that it typically takes 2 to 3 minutes longer for a respondent to complete his/her first recall compared to subsequent recalls.
Is ASA24 available in multiple languages?
The U.S. version of ASA24 is available in English and Spanish. ASA24-Canada is available in English and French. ASA24-Australia is available in English only. ASA24 can be translated into other languages; however, this requires additional funding. Researchers interested in translations should contact the ASA24 Help Desk.
Do the Spanish (U.S. version only) or French (Canadian 2016 and 2018 versions only) versions of the ASA24 system require separate registration?
No, researchers do not need to specify the language that will be used by respondents when registering a study. Rather, when a respondent accesses the Respondent Website, he or she will have the option of completing recalls in languages available for that version. Regardless of the language used to complete the recall, information on the Researcher Website, including all data in reports and analytic files, is available in English only.
Can the ASA24 system be used with children?
The ASA24 system was initially developed for use with adults. ASA24-Kids-2014 (no longer available), was a version of the Respondent Website modified for use with school-aged children, aged 10 years and older. However, this version is no longer available. New studies with children respondents should use the most current version of ASA24.
Does the system allow entering recipes or saving favorites?
Starting with the 2016 versions of ASA24, the system provides respondents with the ability to identify favorite foods and drinks using a star icon. Older versions of the ASA24 system did not have this feature.
Beginning with the 2018 version of ASA24, the system has the capacity for respondents to report, edit, and save recipes.
Can foods or supplements be added to the ASA24 system for a particular study?
It may be possible for researchers to add a limited number of food, beverages, or dietary supplements to their study for items not found in the existing ASA24 database, particularly if they do not closely match an existing item in the ASA24 database. For additional information, researchers should contact the ASA24 Help Desk.
What kind of training do respondents need for completing 24-hour recalls or food records using the ASA24 Respondent Website?
The Respondent Website was designed to be intuitive to ensure accurate self-reporting by the general population, so no additional training is required.
However, if your study design includes in-person contact with Respondents prior to their completion of food recalls or records using the ASA24 system, it can be helpful to orient them to the Respondent Website by having them complete a practice recall or record using the demo version in an environment where study staff are available to answer questions.
ASA24-2016 versions and later also include context-specific tips and a help center with Frequently Asked Questions. There are also instructional materials available that Researchers can download and send to Respondents before they complete a food recall or record and/or share with their study staff to help answer Respondents' questions.
Does the ASA24 system work with all common web browsers?
The 2016 versions of the ASA24 system and subsequent versions will work with any HTML5 compliant web browser. See https://html5test.com/results/desktop.html for more information about HTML5 compliant web browsers.
Can the ASA24 system be accessed on a mobile device?
Respondents can complete food recalls or food records using the 2020, 2016 or 2018 versions of the ASA24 system on mobile devices. The Researcher Website should be accessed on computers with at least a 10" monitor.
What information can researchers collect through the Sleep module?
The Sleep module allows researchers to examine the associations between sleep and dietary intake, timing of eating, and other variables in the context of the 24-hour day. When researchers turn on the sleep module during the creation of new ASA24 studies, respondents will be prompted to answer questions about sleep timing, quantity, and quality after they complete their diet assessment. The questions asked during the Sleep module can be found in Appendix D of the ASA24-2020 Researcher Instructions.
Output & Data Management
What analytic output files are available?
Please see our webpage with sample analysis files and data dictionaries.
What nutrients and food groups are included in the analytic files?
There are 65 nutrients, 37 food groups, and 4 Canadian food groups (ASA24-Canada-2016 and ASA24-Canada-2018 versions) included in the nutrient analysis of ASA24 recall and record data for U.S. and Canadian versions. Analyses for ASA24-Australia-2016 provide 41 nutrients and no food groups.
See our web page on Nutrient and Food Group Analysis for more details on the nutrients and food group equivalents contained in ASA24-2016 and ASA24-2018.
More information on the nutrient and food group databases for all versions of ASA24 is available on our webpage comparing all versions of ASA24. Sample analytic files for nutrients and food groups, as well as data dictionaries, are available on the Researcher Website.
Can data for other nutrients be added to the ASA24 system?
The analytic output files available for download from the Researcher Website include data on food type and quantity as well as Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies (FNDDS) food codes. Researchers can link these data with external sources to perform further analyses beyond those available within the ASA24 system. The capability to add nutrients within the ASA24 system may be possible in the future.
Does the ASA24 system assess usual salt use?
The ASA24 system does not specifically ask about salt use in food preparation or added during eating occasions. This is because most of the dietary sodium in the U.S. diet comes from processed foods, rather than from salt use during food preparation.
A report from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) [PDF] indicated that the Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM), which is the methodology used for the ASA24 system, provided valid sodium intake estimates without asking about salt in food preparation or at the table. As a result, questions about salt intake are not asked in ASA24. The USDA's FNDDS nutrient database associated with ASA24 assumes that some salt is added in the preparation of foods like cooked vegetables and meats regardless of whether or not a person actually added it during food preparation.
Therefore, clinicians and other users should note that sodium intake estimates from ASA24 files and in the Respondent Nutrition Report might appear higher than expected because they assume salt is added in cooking for foods such as vegetables and meat. If sodium values appear elevated in system outputs, clinicians using ASA24 should discuss cooking methods and food sources with patients for whom sodium intake is a concern to estimate true sodium intake in that individual.
What processing do recall or record data entered into the ASA24 system by respondents undergo?
Data are coded using the nutrient, food, and supplement databases noted in the list of available analytic files. No other processing or quality control measures are conducted. As with any data collection initiative, researchers should carefully assess the quality of the data collected from their study Respondents. To assist Researchers in this effort, output files include a flag to indicate whether each recall or record was completed (i.e., whether the Respondent completed the program up to and including the last question).
However, "incomplete" recalls or records may be deemed acceptable by a researcher depending upon how far the respondent made it in the program and what data are missing (e.g., in the food module, missing details on portion size versus a missing a response to the final question which queries whether the amount of food consumed yesterday was usual). A Researcher also may wish to exclude a recall or record coded as "complete" by the ASA24 system because the data entered by the Respondent are of poor quality.
The output files also include details of items entered by the respondent that could not be found (i.e., "no match found") to enable researchers to assign or modify codes outside of the ASA24 system. Recalculation of nutrient or food group intakes to account for revised or newly assigned food codes can be done outside of the ASA24 system using FNDDS or any other source available to Researchers.
Does ASA24 output include Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores?
All U.S. versions of the ASA24 system, ASA24-Canada-2016, and ASA24-Canada-2018 include output with the variables needed to calculate HEI-2010 and the HEI 2015 scores and SAS programs to accomplish this. The HEI is a tool to assess compliance with U.S. dietary guidance; more information on the HEI is available on the HEI webpages.
When can the researcher access nutrition analysis files?
Once data collection is underway, the Researcher can visit the Researcher Website at any time to generate analyses files. However, when the analysis files will be generated and ready to download depends on what version the study is using and when the study was created.
Researchers of ASA24-2016 studies created before June 1, 2018 make the request to generate the files and then retrieve them the next morning. These researchers have an option to request an “instant” report to generate analysis output for last intake day for an individual Respondent. Instant reports will be ready to download in approximately 10 minutes.
Researchers of ASA24-2020, all ASA24-2018 studies and ASA24-2016 studies created on or after June 1, 2018, make the request for files and can retrieve them moments later.
Who will be able to request and access analytic output files?
The researcher and any staff who have been associated with the study (and who therefore have a valid username and password for the ASA24 Researcher Website) will be able to request and access analytic output for their Respondents.
Can the software provide feedback to study respondents?
Since the 2016 U.S. and Canadian versions of ASA24, the system includes an option for researchers to provide respondents completing recalls or records with Respondent Nutrition Reports. This is an optional module that researchers can select during study registration. More information on Respondent Nutrition Reports is available. The Respondent Nutrition Report can also be viewed after completion of a 24-hour recall in the ASA24 demonstration site.
ASA24-Australia-2016 does not currently provide any direct feedback to respondents. Researchers may use the analytic output files available for download to design reports for Respondents outside of ASA24.
What security measures are in place to protect data entered into the ASA24 system and resulting tracking and analytic files?
Please refer to our webpage with information about the confidentiality of Respondent data.
How long will data remain accessible from the ASA24 Researcher Website following the completion of a study?
Data are maintained in the system for a period of at least one year (unless the Researcher requests an earlier date for data purging). Researchers will be notified before their data are removed from the system.
Transitioning Older Studies to ASA24-2022
Is there an automated method to transition my studies to the new version with the same abbreviation?
No. To transition a study, researchers must first create a new study with a new abbreviation in the newest version through the researcher website. ASA24 enforces a unique study abbreviation for each study. Each study is configured with a version that cannot be changed. This is to maintain data integrity of a study’s collected recalls. To transition versions while maintaining the same study abbreviation requires deleting the study and creating a new one with the new version of ASA24. This allows the use of the same study abbreviation without imposing data issues resulting from the different versions.
When is my last chance to transition my studies to the new version?
Each version is typically available for about 3 years. During the third year, retirement warnings are sent out explaining how and when to transition your studies.
How can I harmonize data files between versions?
Versions of ASA24 differ in the food list terms, question pathways and nutrient analysis. For example, new food and portion codes are incorporated to reflect changes in the food supply while some food and portion codes from previous versions no longer exist. Additionally, slight variation in nutrient and food group amounts between FNDDS updates can contribute to differences between version of ASA24. For these reasons, data collected under one version cannot be re-analyzed using a newer version to generate updated nutrient and food group data files. Researchers using the ASA24 system should consider whether the slight changes outlined above would significantly impact their data before harmonizing data files between different version of ASA24.
Please see the Comparisons of Versions page for more information about the databases that are used in different versions of ASA24.
Note: SAS code is available to convert the food group database from older versions to a comparable food group database as used in ASA24-2016 or subsequent versions.
Citing the ASA24 System in Publications & Presentations
What is the recommended citation for the ASA24 system?
In order to show and maintain support for the ASA24 system, documenting its use through publications is extremely useful to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).
To achieve this, we invite investigators to include the following sentence in the methods section of their manuscripts: Dietary intake data for (24-hour recalls OR food records) were collected and analyzed using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour (ASA24) Dietary Assessment Tool, version (YEAR), developed by the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.
ASA24 is a registered trademark of HHS.