ASA24® Respondent Website Methodology

ASA24

The ASA24 guides respondents through the 24-hour recall or food record using a modified version of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM).

Methodology for Collecting 24-hour Dietary Recalls

  1. Meal-based Quick List
  2. Meal Gap Review
  3. Detail Pass
  4. Final Review
  5. Forgotten Foods
  6. Last Chance
  7. Usual Intake Question
  8. Supplement Module, if selected by the Researcher (Note: For 2016 and later versions of ASA24, respondents report supplements similarly to how they report foods, as part of a meal. If the supplement module is not turned on, respondents can still report supplements, but they will not be explicitly prompted to do so.)

Methodology for Collect Food Records

During study setup, researchers select how many days they want respondents to collect food records. The days can be consecutive or nonconsecutive. ASA24 instructs respondents to complete a food record in real time. The methodology for food records was adapted from the ASA24 methodology for 24-hour recalls, described above. The steps for any given day of a food record include:

  1. Meal-based Quick List
  2. Detail Pass
  3. Meal Gap Review

After each meal reported, respondents are asked if they are finished reporting for the day. If not, on their next login, they return to step 1 to report another meal. If they are finished for the day, they go to step 4.

  1. Final Review
  2. Forgotten Foods
  3. Last Chance
  4. Usual Intake Question
  5. Supplement Module, if selected by the Researcher (Note: For 2016 and later versions of ASA24, respondents report supplements similarly to how they report foods, as part of a meal. If the researcher does not turn on the supplement module, respondents can still report supplements, but they will not be explicitly prompted to do so.)

Meal-based Quick List

During the first pass of a 24-hour recall, respondents create a Quick List of all the foods, drinks, and supplements they consumed during the reporting period. The researcher can define the reporting period as either the previous 24 hours (from midnight to midnight) or the 24 hours before the respondent first logged into ASA24. During a food record report, respondents create the list of foods, drinks, and supplements for the meal they are reporting.

To create the Quick List, respondents search to find individual foods, drinks and supplements. Search results correspond to items associated with FNDDS and dietary supplement food codes. Search results can be filtered by food groups, if desired. In versions prior to ASA24-2016, respondents could browse food group categories to find individual foods, drinks, and supplements in addition to search. Since ASA24-2018, respondents can add and modify recipes during the Quick List pass.

Items are listed on the My Foods and Drinks page as they are added to meals and eating occasions.


Meal Gap Review

Once respondents finish entering their list of foods and drinks at the end of the Quick List, they are asked if they consumed anything during any 3-hour gaps between meals and snacks. During the Gap Review, respondents can add snack(s) and meal(s) and the corresponding foods, drinks, and supplements they consumed.


Detail Pass

Respondents are asked for details about the foods and drinks they recorded during the Quick List, including form (e.g., raw or cooked), preparation method (e.g., grilled or roasted), recipe ingredients, the amount consumed, and any additions (e.g., sugar, coffee cream, or salad dressing). An option is available to ask respondents about the source (e.g., grocery store or farmer's market) of all or most of the ingredients in their reported foods and drinks.


Final Review

Respondents are asked to review all of the foods, drinks, and supplements they reported for the intake day. If they want, respondents can return to the My Foods and Drinks List to edit existing items or to add meals, foods, drinks, and supplements.


Forgotten Foods

Following the Final Review, respondents are asked questions about the consumption of commonly forgotten foods and drinks (e.g., snack foods, fruits, vegetables, cheese, water, coffee, tea, and supplements, if the supplement module is turned on). Respondents must select either "Yes" or "No" for each question. For any "Yes" response, the respondent is returned to the My Foods and Drinks List to add the forgotten item(s).


Last Chance

After Forgotten Foods, respondents are asked if they have reported all foods, drinks and, if the supplement module is turned on, supplements. If not, respondents are returned to the My Foods and Drinks List to add more items; otherwise, they move to the Usual Intake Question.


Usual Intake Question

For recalls, the final question asks: Was the amount of food and drink that you had yesterday more than usual, usual, or less than usual? For records, the final question asks: Was the amount of food and drink that you had on [record day] more than usual, usual, or less than usual?


Supplement Module

This module focuses on the types and doses of vitamins, minerals, and other supplements, including prescription supplements. U.S. versions of ASA24 list the supplements used in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Canadian versions use supplements listed in the Licensed Natural Product Database and NHANES 2007-08. The Australian version uses supplements from the Australian Food, Supplement and Nutrient Database 2011-13 Supplement File.

In ASA24-2014 and earlier versions, respondents reported supplements in an additional step after the usual intake question. In ASA24-2016 and subsequent versions, respondents report supplements in the same way they report foods and drinks throughout the day, regardless of whether the supplement module is turned on. If the supplement module is turned on in these versions, respondents are cued several times to report any supplements they consumed.

ASA24 is a registered trademark of HHS.