ASA24® Respondent Website Methodology

Introduction

ASA24-2016, ASA24-Canada-2016, and ASA24-Australia-2016 allow Researchers to collect both 24-hour dietary recalls and food records.

24-hour Dietary Recalls

Respondents are guided through the 24-hour recall interview using a modified version of the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM)External Web Site Policy.

  1. Meal-based Quick List
  2. Meal Gap Review
  3. Detail Pass
  4. Final Review
  5. Forgotten Foods
  6. Last Chance
  7. Usual Intake Question
  8. Supplement Module, if selected by the Researcher (Note: For all versions of ASA24-2016, supplements are reported similarly to how foods are reported (i.e., throughout the day as part of a meal). If the Researcher does not turn on the module, Respondents can still report supplements, but they will not be explicitly prompted to do so.)


Food Records

A record can consist of one or more days, as determined by the Researcher during study setup. When they log in to the ASA24-2016 system, Respondents will be instructed to complete a food record in real time. The methodology for food records was adapted from the ASA24-2016 methodology for 24-hour recalls, described above. The steps for any given day of a food record include:

  1. Meal-based Quick List
  2. Detail Pass
  3. Meal Gap Review

Respondents are asked if they are finished reporting for the entire day after each meal reported. If not, they return to step 1 to report another meal. If they are finished reporting for the day, they proceed to step 4.

  1. Final Review
  2. Forgotten Foods
  3. Last Chance
  4. Usual Intake Question
  5. Supplement Module, if selected by the Researcher (Note: For all versions of ASA24-2016, supplements are reported similar to how foods are reported (i.e., throughout the day as part of a meal). If the Researcher does not turn on the module, Respondents can still report supplements, but they will not be explicitly prompted to do so.)

Return to Top

Meal-based Quick List

During the first pass of a 24-hour recall, Respondents are asked to provide a list of the foods and drinks consumed at each meal occasion during the previous 24-hour recall period from midnight-to-midnight or, optionally, in the 2016 and 2014 versions of ASA24, for the past 24-hours (starting at the time of the first login).

Similarly, for food records, Respondents first provide a list of foods and drinks for the meal they are reporting.

Respondents are required to search to find foods, drinks or supplements; search results can then be filtered by food groups, if desired. For recalls in all earlier versions, Respondents are able to browse food group categories or search to find their foods, drinks, and supplements.

For records and recalls, foods, drinks and supplements reported at each meal are recorded in the My Foods and Drinks panel within the instrument. In addition to selecting an eating occasion (e.g., breakfast, lunch, snack), Respondents are also prompted to specify the time of the occasion before reporting the foods and drinks consumed. The Researcher can opt to collect additional contextual information including where meals were eaten, whether television or computers were used during meals, and whether the meal was eaten alone or with others by turning on the corresponding module during study setup.

Return to Top

Meal Gap Review

Once Respondents finish creating their My Foods and Drinks list at the end of the Quick List, they are asked if they consumed anything during any 3-hour gaps between eating occasions. For the midnight-to-midnight version of the 24-hour recalls and for food records, Respondents are also asked if they consumed anything between midnight and the first eating occasion, and between the last eating occasion and midnight regardless of the length of time gaps. During a Gap Review, Respondents have the opportunity to return to the Quick List to add meal(s) and the corresponding foods, drinks, and supplements consumed.

Return to Top

Detail Pass

Respondents are asked for details about the foods and drinks they recorded during the Quick List, including form (e.g., raw), preparation methods (e.g., grilled or roasted), the amount consumed, and any additions (e.g., sugar, coffee cream, salad dressing). An option is available to probe Respondents about the source (e.g. grocery store, farmer's market, etc.) of all or most of the ingredients in the reported foods and drinks.

Return to Top

Final Review

Respondents are prompted to review all of the foods, drinks, and, supplements reported for the intake day. If desired, Respondents can return to the Quick List to edit existing items or to add meals, foods, drinks and supplements.

Return to Top

Forgotten Foods

Following the Final Review, Respondents are asked questions probing the consumption of commonly forgotten foods and drinks (e.g., snack foods, fruits, vegetables, cheese, water, coffee, tea, and supplements if the supplement module is turned on). Respondents must select either "Yes" or "No" for each food and drink. For any "Yes" response, the Respondent is returned to the Quick List to add the forgotten item(s).

Return to Top

Last Chance

After Forgotten Foods, Respondents are asked if they have reported all foods, drinks and, if the supplement module is turned on, supplements. If not, Respondents will be returned to the Quick List to add more items; otherwise, they will move to the Usual Intake Question.

Return to Top

Usual Intake Question

For recalls, the final question asks: Was the amount of food and drink that you had yesterday more than usual, usual, or less than usual? For records, the final question asks: Was the amount of food and drink that you had on [record day] more than usual, usual, or less than usual? This question probes whether this was a typical day's intake.

Return to Top

Supplement Module

This module includes vitamins, minerals, and other supplements, including prescription supplements. The supplements included in U.S. versions are based on those reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the Canadian versions, included supplements are based on the Licensed Natural Product Database and NHANES 2007-08. In the Australian version, the supplements included are based on the Australian Food, Supplement and Nutrient Database (AUSNUT) 2011-13 Supplement File.

In ASA24-2016 versions, Respondents are always able to report supplements in the same manner they report foods and drinks throughout the day, regardless of whether the module is turned on or off. However, if the module is turned on in the 2016 versions, Respondents are cued several times to report any supplements consumed.

Respondents are asked to provide information about the types and doses of supplements consumed by completing a supplement-specific Quick List, Detail Pass, and Final Review. Respondents are able to filter by supplement categories (e.g., Multi-Vitamin/Mineral, Calcium products, Herbal/Botanicals) or search for a particular supplement.

Return to Top

ASA24 is a registered trademark of HHS.